Allah has appointed specific times for acts of worship for reasons known to Him. We know about some of them but some of them are hidden from us. Whatever the case, we are commanded to adhere to them and are not permitted to transgress them except for reasons permitted in the shari'ah.
If a person misses prayer, one of two scenarios should apply:
You missed it for some reason, like oversleeping or forgetting about it. There is no sin in him in this case, but he has to make up for it when he wakes up or remembers.
It was narrated from Anas ibn Maalik (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever forgets a prayer, let him offer it as soon as he remembers, for he does not there is atonement for him besides.” Narrated by al-Bukhari (572) and Muslim (684); Muslim narrated an additional sentence: "or sleep and lose."
Muslim also narrated (684): “If one of you falls asleep and misses a prayer, or forgets it, let him offer the prayer when he remembers, for Allah says 'and perform As-Salaah (Iqaamat-as-Salaah) for Me .memory. ' [Ta-Ha 20:14].”
Lost prayer without excuse; instead, he ignored it until the time was up, out of laziness and carelessness. That person is sinning according to the consensus of Muslims and has committed a greater sin.
It is not valid for him to make amends according to the more correct of the two learned opinions, but he must repent and repent, and resolve not to do it again, and he must do many good deeds and offer up many voluntary prayers. .
Ibn Hazm these:
As for the one who deliberately refrains from praying until the prayer time is over, he can never get it back, so he should do many good deeds and offer up many voluntary prayers, so that his balance (of good deeds) will weigh heavily on the Day. of Remembrance, of Resurrection, and he must repent and ask Allah for forgiveness. Final citation.
Al Muhalla (2/235).
This is also the opinion of 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab and his son 'Abd-Allaah, and of Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqaas, Salmaan, Ibn Mas'ood, al-Qasim ibn Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr and Badiel al-'Aqeeli , Muhammad ibn Sireen, Mutarrif ibn 'Abd-Allah and 'Umar ibn 'Abd al-'Azeez. It was also the opinion of Dawud al-Zahiri and Ibn Hazm, and it was the opinion favored by Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah and al-Shawkaani. Among contemporary scholars, al-Albaani, Ibn Baaz, Ibn 'Uzaymin and others considered it more correct.
They cited the following as evidence:
The words of Allah (interpretation of the meaning):
"Truly, As-Salaah (prayer) is enjoined upon believers at fixed times"
They said: There is an appointed time for prayer and it is not permissible to do so at any other time except with evidence.
The words of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): "Whoever forgets a prayer, let him offer it as soon as he remembers, for there is no atonement beyond that."
The words "let her offer it as soon as she remembers, for there is no other atonement for her besides this" mean: if she delays in offering the prayer after remembering it, then it is not an atonement, so what about the prayer? the one who deliberately neglects it without forgetting or sleeping? It is even more likely that it is not an atonement in this case, and that the compensation does not bring any benefit.
Since Allah has assigned a specific time to each obligatory prayer, specifying the beginning and end of it, it is as if it is invalid to do it before that time, just as it is invalid to do it after.
Al Muhalla (2/235).
Ibn Hazm these:
Furthermore, inventing must be based on evidence, and it is not permissible for anything other than Allaah to be prescribed on the lips of His Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). We ask those who say that he who deliberately omits prayer is bound to make up for it, tell us about this prayer you are commanding him to pray: is it the prayer which God commanded, or some other prayer? If they say that is what Allah has commanded, then we say to them: So he who deliberately omits is not a sinner, for he has done what Allah has commanded him to do and there is no sin according to what you have done. say, and there is no blame for him who deliberately refrains from praying until the time for it is up. But this is something that no Muslim can say. If they say that it is not the prayer that Allaah commanded him to do, then we say: You are right, and that is enough, because they have admitted that they told him to do something that Allaah did not order him to do. Final citation.
Al Muhalla (2/236).
Those who say that one has to invent did so by analogy with someone who forgets or falls asleep, and said that if someone who forgets has to invent, then it is more likely that someone who deliberately omitted to do so.
My answer is that there is no comparison between the two scenarios, because those who omit themselves are deliberately sinning, which is not true in the case of those who forget, so how to make an analogy between those who are sinning and those who are sinning, are sinning ? one who does not sin?
Al-Shawkaani (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
Ibn Taymiyah said: Those who disagree, namely those who say he must invent prayer, have no evidence to support their argument. Most of them say you don't need to make it up unless there is a clear (evidence-based) order, but there is no such order in this case. We do not disagree that it is mandatory to do so; on the contrary, we disagree whether the invented prayer will be accepted by him and whether the prayer offered at the wrong time is valid. He discussed this subject at length and favored the point of view mentioned by Dawood and those who agreed with him, and the subject is as he put it, because I have done a thorough study on this subject and have not seen any reliable evidence that it arrests one who deliberately jumps. a phrase to retrieve it.
Nayl al-Awtaar (2/26).
The most correct opinion, and Allah knows best, is that one who deliberately omits prayer should not invent it, but should seek forgiveness and repent.
Ibn al-Qayyim (may Allaah have mercy on him) discussed this issue at length and examined the evidence on both sides in his useful book al-Salaah (pp. 67-109).
Nota: Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah disse:
Scholars who say you must say the prayer are not saying that by saying it you are absolved of sin, rather they say that by saying it your burden of sin is reduced, but the sin of losing and delaying prayer beyond its time. the prescribed time is like any other sin, it needs repentance or good works to erase it or other things to exempt it from punishment. Final citation.